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Hi there, Good health is your most valuable asset! At citochrome we're focused on helping people be active participants in their care.

The facts

According to the US National Library of medicine; Many drugs that are currently available are “one size fits all,” but they don't work the same way for everyone. The table of pharmacogenetic associations published by the FDA; Knowledge of a person's genotype may be used to aid in determining a therapeutic strategy, determining an appropriate dosage, or assessing the likelihood of benefit or toxicity.

 Included in your Pharmacogene Polymorphism Report*



CYP2C19 gene*
cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 

Importance: The CYP2C19 gene codes for an  enzyme that plays a role in the processing or metabolizing of at least 10 percent of prescription drugs



CYP2D6 gene*

cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 

Importance:  High inter individual  variations (polymorphism) of the CYP2D6 gene have been reported in the scientific literature leading to variations in the enzyme expression. The CYP2D6 enzyme is involved in the metabolism or processing of up to 25 percent of prescription drugs 



CYP2C9 gene*

cytochrome P450 (CYP450)

 Importance: CYP2C9 gene polymorphisms affect metabolic activity of the enzyme. CYP2C9 is responsible for the metabolic clearance of up to 15 to 20 percent of all drugs undergoing Phase I metabolism


CYP3A5 gene*
cytochrome P450 (CYP450) 

Importance:  involved in the metabolism of steroid hormones, vitamins and certain prescription drugs  CYP3A5 may be the most important genetic contributor to interindividual and interracial differences inCYP3A
mediated drug metabolism.



IFNL3 gene*

This gene encodes a cytokine

Importance: Association with Hepatitis C Virus Treatment Response



Alleles DNA results

Allelic genes

The star (*) Allele system describes alternative DNA spelling of a gene that can occur at the same  place in the genome. The wild-type allele or the reference allele *1 allele, which is associated with functional enzyme mediated metabolism. A variant allele encodes reduced, absent enzyme function, or a gain-of-function alleles.

Your report will specify which two Allelic genes you have based  on your genetic variations in your DNA results.

Allele frequency

Utilizing data from the Thousand Genomes Project, the frequencies of variant alleles change according to ethnic groups. Natural populations often expand, diminish, and migrate over time. Such demographic forces can affect genetic diversity. Moreover, proven sites of functional variation can be reshaped by natural selection.

Your report will include frequencies of well studied core alleles in various population groups.

Order your personalized report

If you want better insights that can inform your health provider about how you may break down certain medications commonly prescribed to treat pain, depression, anxiety, and other conditions.

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The information in this Report is for informational and educational purposes only. It is not intended for direct diagnostic use or medical decision-making. Individuals should not change their health behavior solely on the basis of information contained on this website. If you have questions about the information contained on this website, please see a health care professional.

*This product provides only a preliminary analytical result. An independent, clinically validated test must be used in connection with the medical trait in question.Limitations: This product analyzes certain genetic variants associated with  how quickly a medication is metabolized in the body. This product does not query all possible alleles associated with drug metabolism. Results may change as research advances and permit us to better understand what these genetic variations mean for health. Numerous factors can affect response to a medicine, including gender, age, and diet. Not a diagnostic product. Contains data from dbSNP, ClinVar, 1000 genomes project, COSMIC, dbGaP, dbVAR, EGA and many other sources.

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